Then, like an abundant fossil and archaeological record make it clear, some of our human ancestors left Africa. They spread to neighboring continents, taking their languages ââwith them. Others have stayed behind; their descendants speak what we call “African languages”, recalling the long history of these communities on the home continent.
There were also those who migrated out of Africa and whose descendants later returned. These include the ancestors of the so-called ethiosemite languages in Eritrea and Ethiopia some 3,000 years ago. The most recent and spectacular comebacks have occurred with the Arab-Islamic invasions beginning in 614 CE, European colonialism after 1492 CE, and post-colonial labor migration of the 20th and 21st centuries.
One of the results of all this movement is the geographic spread and continued development of human languages ââ- most of them unwritten. It is difficult to study and reconstruct them: unlike the discoveries excavated in paleoanthropology, human language leaves fossils only in writing. Very few living or extinct languages ââhave left written texts. Those who understood the Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics dating back around 5,000 years, and ancestral languages ââof modern Semitic which have left written traces that also span several millennia, the oldest of Akkadian in today’s Iraq in cuneiform script.
For more than 50 years, I have dedicated myself considerable research efforts To study of so-called Chadic languages. These are spoken in the west, south and east of Lake Chad (hence their name) in Central Africa. The best known and best studied Chadic language is Hausa, speak as one of the major African languages ââin much of West and Central Africa by some 80 million people or more. Unfortunately, knowledge about the 200 or so Hausa-speaking parents in Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad is coming very slowly.
What researchers want to know most is how these languages ââdeveloped as a family from a common ancient proto-language; they also want to explain how the languages âârelate to other more well-known language families – ancient Egyptian, Berber (Amazigh), Cushitic, Semitic and perhaps Omotic – with which they are supposed to form a common linguistic phylum, Afro-Asian.
The results of my research will be presented in two books: the first volume focuses on the origin of vowels in these languages. The second and final volume will focus on the sound changes affecting consonants in these languages. It is expected to be released in 2023.
I used well-established linguistic techniques to reconstruct one of the ancestral languages ââprobably spoken a few thousand years ago in the region around Lake Chad in Central Africa and which was ancestral to around 80 present-day languages ââin the region. . Until now, these languages ââwere hardly written down.
Professional linguists use a number of established tools to discover language histories even in the absence of written texts. Two of them are internal reconstruction and the comparative method. These were developed around 150 years ago by the Neogrammary school in Leipzig, whose scholars have successfully reconstructed the Indo-European linguistic family relationships that link modern and ancient European languages ââlike English and ancient Greek to modern and ancient Asian languages ââlike Urdu and ancient Sanskrit.
My own research focuses on the linguistic history of the Afro-Asian language phylum. A phylum, in linguistics, is a group of languages ââless close to each other than those that make up a family. Together, the Afro-Asian phylum consists of approximately 400 languages. Most are spoken in the northern half of Africa, from Morocco and Mauritania in the west to Egypt and Tanzania in the east and adjacent parts of Asia. They rank among the oldest modern languages ââin terms of traceable records. Experts estimated that the proto-Afroasiatic emerged in Africa between 12,000 and 16,000 years ago.
My research focused on the nearly 200 Chadic languages ââspoken in the west, south and east of Lake Chad in Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad. They form the largest family of the Afroasiatic phylum. There are four branches; central Chad or “Biu-MandaraâConsists of around 80 languages. The objective was to reconstruct the sound system and the vocabulary of Proto-Central Chadic.
My main source was a online database containing 250 word meanings like “compound”, “cow”, “eat”, “millet”, etc. -Central Chadic in his 2014 doctoral thesis, while using a different methodological approach. In total, I ended up analyzing about 5,500 words from four to 50 modern languages.
I have meticulously analyzed each word to delineate its historical development from central Proto-Chadian to its present-day forms in modern languages, spanning a temporal depth of potentially thousands of years.
A deep vision
No language develops in a vacuum. Almost all of the words I searched for have changed their tone over time. This would be due in part to the rules and regularities specific to the language in intergenerational language transfer. But sound changes are also influenced by new local linguistic habits adopted by following generations of speakers and forming new dialects, or by borrowing words and phrases from neighboring languages.
Nevertheless, languages ââalso retain characteristics of the linguistic heritage, such as those of the ultimate proto-language; in this case, Proto-Afroasiatic.
Proto-Central-Chadic knew only one true vowel, “a”. He used “y” and “w” to serve as vowels “i” and “u” at the same time when he was in the syllable core position (the center of the syllable). Take the modern word Mandara, I’m going for “head”. In Proto-Central-Chad, it was * ghwna. I was able to deduce this by understanding the vowel substitutions and the changes in the sound of words.
The consonants have also changed. The word for “sheep” was * tama in Proto-Central-Chad; the m became w, and the suffixes also changed over time, leading to the modern Mandara word for “sheep”, kyawe.
I hope this work will be a step towards uncovering some of the region’s currently unwritten history. By comparing the sounds and words of modern languages, it is possible to detect population movements and migrations in the past, as people adopt sounds and words from other languages ââwith which they have been in contact for some time. time. The reconstructed vocabulary also sheds light on cultural objects and human habitats, in particular the dissemination of ideas and the importance of certain concepts. DM / ML
This story was first published in The conversation.
Ekkehard Wolff is Emeritus Professor of African Linguistics at the University of Leipzig.